Métis Origins

Our Métis history may be old in our eyes, but it is very young compared to the rest of the world. Unfortunately, Métis history was not taught well in school, and was even hidden in some parts of Canada. It was not in always in shame; it was often the only mean to survive the genocide of the continent's indigenous peoples, especially during the dark years of the Deportation of the Acadians (Le Grand Dérangement) and the Red River Resistance.

In other parts of the country, especially during the last twenty years, Métis history was "re-written" to accommodate political agendas or groups claiming that the birth of the Metis "Nation" stems from the fur trade around Red River, Manitoba in the late 1700s and early 1800s.  We offer solid evidence that the roots of Canada's Métis Nation are solidly anchored in eastern Canada. Every serious historian will tell you that our young French ancestors, who spent months at high seas and eventually settled in eastern Canada from the early 1600s onward, did not wait 175 years and the migration of the fur trade to western Canada to take an Indigenous wife and start a family!

Some peoples debate that being a mixed-blood, or half-breed does not constitute the right to call oneself Métis. Not only do we disagree wholeheartedly, but we consider such statements as racist and discriminatory. The word Métis is not native to the West, but was used by explorers and settlers, including Louis Riel to describe his fellow citizens of the Red River, as well as all other Métis peoples in Canada. The term Métis has its source in a Latin word meaning mixing, weaving. The adjective “métissé” was in fact used first in New France in the 17th century, but it had already taken the form of a noun in the early 18th century, as well as other names, such as mixed-blood, chicot, burnt-wood, Canayen, etc.

The study of the history of the Métis in the east and the west bring to light important differences, and some similarities, but it also shows an important commonalities and truths: a history of upheaval, challenges, and discrimination from sea to sea.

Census Statistics

We added a new section to look at the census numbers over time. Please be patient with us as we locate, analyse and post the information.  CENSUS


We invite historians, historical authors, and serious researchers to contribute their work to this page to help people understand who is Métis. For your reading pleasure, we have started and will continue providing links to existing thesis, researches, articles, etc., to this page.


The following section offers published work from various authors, all available on the internet. **Note:  Finding these works on our site does not mean that the MNOC agrees with all the authors. This list encourages awareness and awakening to our history. Unfortunately, not all resources are available in English and French.

NOTE: Please contact us to obtain a copy.

  • The indefensible in-betweenness or the spatio-legal arbitrariness of the Métis fact in Quebec (Étienne Rivard, 2017)
  • An Ethnographic Report on the Acadian-Métis 2018 (Christian Boudreau)
  • Comission D'enquete Viens
  • Communautés mixtes Cote Nord A-2018-00145
  • Du Dunn Martin - The Other Metis A201701143_ nn Martin - The Other Metis A201701143_
  • Ethnogenèse Des Premiers Métis Canadiens, Denis Jean
  • Displaced Mixed-Blood: An Ethnographic Exploration of Metis Identities in Nova Scotia (Katie K. MacLeod)
  • Entretien avec John Ralston Saul : L'Acadie Métis, Chapados, Emmanuelle . L'Étoile Shediac ; Richibucto, N.B. [Richibucto, N.B]23 Apr 2009: C.10.
  • Les familles pionnières de la Nouvelle-France, Jean-Paul Macouin
  • Les Inuit du Labrador 1850s, Paul Charest
  • Métis Environmental Knowledge, Carol Leclair
  • Métis Perspectives - The other Metis, Martin Dunn
  • Métis-Acadien, Gerald Vizenor
  • Métissage in New France, Devrin Karahasan
  • Bonds Of Money, Bonds Of Matrimony?:French And Native Intermarriage In 17th & 18th Century Nouvelle France And Senegal, Eugene Richard Henry Tesdahl
  • The Other Metis, Martin Dunn
  • Negotiating an Identity: Metis Political Organizations, the Canadian Government, and Competing Concepts of Aboriginality, Joe Sawchuk
  • Prairie and Quebec Metis territoriality , Etienne Rivard
  • The French Relationship with the Native Peoples of New France and Acadia, INAC
  • Les relations franco-amérindiennes en Nouvelle-France et Acadie, AANDC
  • Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples
  • Ni Amérindiens ni Eurocanadiens. Une approche néomoderne du culturalisme métis au Canada, Emmanuel Michaux
  • La Mouvance Métisse au Québec : Vouloir Être ou Ne Pas Être Métis, Mémoire présenté comme exigence partielle de la Maîtrise en Science Politique, Simon Villeneuve
  • Metis Acadian Heritage 1604-2004, Roland Surette
  • The Metis in Southwestern, Nova Scotia, William Wicken.